Here you will find information on the most commonly used flours, most of which can be milled with the Lee Household Flour Mill . This expanding compendium of flours is updated frequently. Flours can be made from a wide variety of plants, grains and nuts. Archeologists have even found evidence of flour made from cattail, ferns and other plants on mortars and pestles uncovered at 30,000-year-old encampments in Italy, Russia and the Czech Republic.


The nutritional benefits of freshly milled whole wheat flour are reason enough for milling your own flour. The fresher, fuller tastes afforded by home milling will make your baked goods dramatically better. No longer are you limited to the commercially prepared wheat flour at the grocery store. With a home flour mill you can experiment with all different kinds of flour. Have some dried lentils or raw cashews? Why not try making flour with them? And for anyone with wheat allergies or Celiac disease, being able to mill your own gluten-free flour at home makes life a lot easier.

Let the flour adventure begin!


The Making of Flour

When most Americans think about flour, probably the first thing to come to mind is the bags of white flour sold in grocery stores. There is an enormous difference between this kind of flour and flour you make by grinding grain at home. To understand the differences, it helps to start at the beginning.

What exactly is “Enriched Flour”?

Prior to the 1800s, Americans bought their flour from mills in or near the towns where they lived. Those mills ground the entire wheat kernel or other grain on large stone wheels. The Industrial Revolution led to the development of machinery capable of grinding much faster and in far greater quantities. The trouble is that, flour goes rancid due to the oils in the germ of the kernel oxidizing with exposure to the air. Large manufacturers couldn’t get their flour to market before it began to spoil.

To solve the problem, flour began to be produced from just the endosperm through mechanical separation. Unfortunately, the heat generated through the milling process results in losses of protein quality and nutrient concentrations. Modern flour processing resulted in losses of fiber, B vitamins, vitamin E, trace minerals, unsaturated fat, and phytochemicals from flour.

There were voices of dissent even in the late 1800s. One of the earliest was Presbyterian minister Rev. Sylvester Graham, who advocated the use of flour made from the entire grain without alum or chlorine added to make it look whiter. In the 1920s, Dr. Royal Lee became one of the leading critics of commercially produced flours, promoting the use of whole wheat flour instead. A prolific inventor, Dr. Lee developed the Lee Household Flour Mill for home milling. This flour mill, redesigned in 2015, has been in production since the 1940s.

Eventually, in the 1940s, the USDA began requiring flour makers to replace some of the essential vitamins the milling process removed. The process of “enriching” process adds synthetic versions of Niacin (vitamin B3), Thiamine (vitamin B1), Riboflavin (vitamin B2), Folic Acid (a B vitamin) and iron. Unfortunately, since they are not in their natural state, these “enrichments” are not considered to be beneficial.  In addition, white flour has no bran content; it also lacks fiber.

Dr. Royal Lee was one of the leading critics of the plan to replace the B-complex vitamins removed from flour with synthetic versions of them. With his associate Jerome Stolzoff, he published in 1942 “The Special Nutritional Qualities of Natural Foods,” which includes a chapter explaining why whole wheat flour is nutritionally superior to the commercially produced wheat flours. As Dr. Lee understood, vitamins, minerals and enzymes all work together synergistically; if some are missing or in the wrong state, the metabolic process is thrown off balance. Dr. Lee concluded that the result of eating artificially fortified foods with no natural nutrients is a slow case of malnutrition, a compromised immune system and poor health.

Bleached and Unbleached Flour

Freshly milled wheat flour has a slightly yellowish hue compared to the pure white color of most commercially produced flours. Many of the flours you see in the grocery store are bleached for purely visual reasons. This is largely due to a consumer preference for light colored flour, which yields light-colored baked goods.

In the old days, flour was lightened naturally by exposure to oxygen in the air, a process which also strengthened the gluten-forming proteins in flour and resulted in breads with higher volume and finer crumb. The entire process, however, took up to 12 weeks. By the late 1800’s, millers were looking for ways to accelerate the process in order to introduce product to market faster. Millers found the whitening process could be sped up and yield a consistent color through the use of chemical bleaching agents.

Today, all-purpose flour is usually bleached with chlorine dioxide or benzoyl peroxide to give it a pure white color. One of the byproducts generated from the interaction of chlorine and proteins in flour is alloxan, a toxin that has been linked to diabetes in laboratory experiments.

What’s not in your flour?

Flour is characterized by the extraction rate, or the quantity of flour by weight, compared to the original quantity of wheat. Extraction rates of 75% or lower are used to generate typical white flour. Whole flour is produced at an extraction rate of 100%.

At an extraction rate of 75%, the process of milling flour removes:

Dietary fiber 77%
Calcium 43%
Phosphorus 66%
Iron 63%
Copper 60%
Thiamin 62%
Riboflavin 59%
Niacin 79%
Vitamin B6  81%

The Flour Revolution

Today, more Americans than ever are discovering the superior taste and nutrition of foods made with freshly ground flours. While whole wheat flours are the basis for most home milling, virtually any grain (even nuts and beans) can be ground into flour. Because the flour is made from the entire grain or seed, nothing is lost due to processing. You grind only as much as you need, so all your recipes benefit from having freshly ground flour.

The Lee Household Flour Mill: The Best Home Flour Mill Ever Made

The Lee Household Flour Mill is the latest incarnation of a design first patented by Dr. Royal Lee in 1949. Our mill combines a stationary millstone with the power of electricity to make grinding your own flour fast and economical. The flour produced is so fine there is no need for sifting, an often necessary extra step with flours produced on many other flour mills.

Sometimes, the old ways are best. Case in point: Milling flour on a stone mill generates less heat than other milling methods. High temperature milling methods denatures protein, reduces amino acid content and reduces unsaturated fatty acid. Stone grinding reduces the entire kernel to a fine flour without excess heat. Our stationary millstone is a modern take on the traditional stone wheel used by pre-Industrial Revolution mills. It is second only to diamonds in hardness and never needs redressing because the pressure on it is very light and the stone is extremely hard.

Powered by an American made, variable torque motor, our Household Flour Mill has proven itself over many decades to be extremely reliable and durable. To protect from overheating, it is designed with an integrated thermal switch that automatically shuts down if the mill if it becomes overloaded. The switch automatically resets when temperatures reach a safe level.

The Lee Household Flour Mill is easy to use, will not gust flour throughout your kitchen, and is easily cleaned after use. Unlike many of the newer flour mills on the market, the Lee Household Flour Mill is proudly made in the United States and is built to provide many years of service. Not just to you, but to your children, and in all likelihood, their children.